5.1 Course Objectives
- To create awareness on pest surveillance and its implications on Agricultural production and trade.
- To enhance participants’ knowledge on types of pest surveillance and surveillance methodology: To enhance knowledge and skills in surveillance data collection, analysis, pest reporting and communication.
- To enhance knowledge on the use of surveillance information to establish pest free areas, areas of low pest prevalence and pest free places of production.
5.2 Course Outline
- Types of pest surveillance
- Surveillance methodology
- Analysis of surveillance data
- Pest reporting and pest listing
- Establishment of pest free areas, areas of low pest prevalence and pest free places of production
- Tools in pest surveillance
5.3 Course content
- Introduction: definitions, importance of pest surveillance, implications on Agricultural production and trade, legal framework: existing mechanisms for conducting surveillance. Refer to ISPM 4, 5, 6, 8, 16,17, 19,22, 26, 27, 29 and 30
- Distinction between survey and surveillance, general surveillance, specific surveillance (detection, delimiting or monitoring surveillance), pest surveillance, commodity/host surveillance, border (entry/exit points) surveillance, community surveillance.
- Rationale for surveillance, determination of type of surveillance,
- Surveillance plan: surveillance team, infrastructure, scope, history, surveillance design, sample size, site selection, timing.
- Sampling procedures and tools for example, Mapping (ArcGIS, Diva-GIS, QGIS),
- Pest identification/diagnostics: confirmation of pest, sources of information (pest surveillance data bases and others, procedures for reporting.
- Data processing :statistical analysis and interpretation
- surveillance report development: elements of the report, literature, detection analysis report, statistical conclusions and recommendations
- Record keeping and transparency: documentation and communication of surveillance report.
- Purpose of pest reporting and listing
- Other sources of information, verification of information
- Content of report: outline, identity of the pest, host(s) or articles concerned, status of the pest (for example, regulated or non-regulated quarantine), geographical distribution of the pest [including a map, if appropriate], nature of the immediate or potential danger, or other reason for reporting),
- Specific proposals to address new pests.
1.1.5 Establishment of pest free areas, pest free places of production and areas of low pest prevalence (3 Hours)
- Definitions: pest free areas, pest free places of production, areas of low pest prevalence)
- Determination of a PFA, establishment and maintenance of a PFA,
- Systems to establish freedom, Phytosanitary measures to maintain freedom, checks to verify freedom has been maintained, documentation and review.
- Geographical Information System (GIS): Introduction to GIS, Importance of GIS, data collection using GPS, map development using GIS applications, modelling, examples of GIS software: ArcGIS, QGIS, open software, Diva-GIS
- Data collection kits (Open Data Kit-ODK, KoboCollect and other data collection kits), Principles and use of ODK in data collection, development of questionnaires using KoboToolbox, collection of data using ODK, downloading and editing data,
- Surveillance on Bemisia tabaci, by National Museums of Kenya (NMK), KEPHIS, and Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO).
- Regional Surveillance: Maize Lethal Necrotic Disease and Fall Armyowrm
- Surveillance on cassava brown streak virus or tomato spotted wilt virus.
- Surveillance on Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) by International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), NARO-Kawanda, Bioversity International, KEPHIS.
- Community surveillance: African Armyworm, Fall Armyworm
- Other case studies from participating countries
Additional data for above case studies may include maps, pictures and other relevant information
- Practical – Setting up various traps for specific pests example: Tuta absoluta, false codling moth, Ceratitis capitata, Asian citrus psyllids, sticky traps, undertake identification and generate a field report.
- Insect pest specimen preservation and insect box collection
- Group Exercise - generate maps using Arc GIS; country experiences on port of entry surveillance system, existence of early warning surveillance system.
- Data collection kits - exercise on the use of ODK
- Development of a surveillance report using hypothetical pest.
- Crop Protection Compendium. http://www.cabi.org/cpc/
- ISPM 04: 1995 Requirements for the establishment of pest free areas
- ISPM 06: 1997 Guidelines for surveillance
- ISPM 08: 2017 Determination of pest status in an area
- ISPM 16: 2017 Regulated non-quarantine pests: Concept and application
- ISPM 17: 2017 Pest reporting
- ISPM 19: 2016 Guidelines on lists of regulated pests
- ISPM 26: 2015 Establishment of pest free areas for fruit flies (Tephritidae)
- ISPM 27: 2016 Diagnostic protocols for regulated pests
- ISPM 22: 2016 Requirements for the establishment of areas of low pest prevalence
- ISPM 29: 2017 Recognition of pest free areas and areas of low pest prevalence
- ISPM 30: 2017 Establishment of areas of low pest prevalence for fruit flies (Tephritidae)
- ArcGIS information software, version 10: www.esri.com
- Open data kit (ODK): https://opendatakit.org/
- Quantum GIS (QGIS): https://www.qgis.org/en/site/
- Trapping guidelines for areawide fruitfly programmes: by International Atomic Energy Agency of UN: https://www.iaea.org/publications/6916/trapping-guidelines-for-area-wide-fruit-fly-programmes