7.1 Course Objectives
- To sensitize and enhance knowledge on emerging biosecurity issues and mitigation measures in agricultural trade.
- To create awareness on the use of Information Communication and Technology (ICT) in Phytosanitary systems.
7.2 Course Outline
- Bio-safety issues in agricultural trade
- Invasive alien species
- Application of ICT in biosecurity.
7.3 Course content
- Introduction to biosecurity, categories of biosecurity risks: pests, GMO, biological agents, microbial contaminants, invasive species, pesticides, noxious weeds
- Bio-safety: definition, GMOs (including recent developments and concerns; GMO crops that have been commercialized, status of GMO legal frameworks, bio-safety capacity building initiatives), known centers of excellence, list of experts.
- Role of GMO in phytosanitary systems
- Relation to CBD and Cartagena protocol: development of national legislation and structures.
- Risk assessment: invasive species, pesticide residues, GMOs, mycotoxins and others; environment, plant health, commercial release, risk management [including labeling], methods of GMOs detections, seed protocols (GMO tolerances).
- International travels: undeclared plant materials
- Introduction: definitions, scope and importance of bio-security, bio-security issues in trade; invasive alien species; examples.
- Elements of bio-security management systems: policies, structures (regulation of introduced biological control agents), disaster response committees.
- Invasive alien species and pathways of introduction: weeds, insect pests, nematodes and pathogens; wood packaging materials; impact and management.
- Phytosanitary implications of food aid: introduction and spread of invasive alien species.
- Electronic trade: Background, application of e-trade (electronic certification, one stop border systems, single window and others), tools, advantages and limitations, current status, future prospects. SWIFT- The Kenya national electronic single window system, Citizen Science/Crowd sourcing, e-commerce (plants/seeds traded online)
- Pest early warning systems: onground and satellite data, data collection tools, modelling, rapid alert and emergency response. CABI PRISE
- Diagnostics: barcoding, PCR, next generation sequencing,
- Information management systems: pest database, available systems, application (diagnostics, decision making, trade facilitation), documentation, policy, communication (for example notifications, rejections, advice, field reports and others).
- Case studies on key biosecurity issues: Water hyacinth, opuntia, Parthenium, Prosopis, Bactrocera invadens, examples of pathogens; pesticide residues, and aflatoxin contamination of maize in Kenya and its consequences.
- Biosecurity issues relevant to the country of training, fusarium oxysporum tropical race 4 in Australia (Queensland)
- Group discussions and presentations of country specific biosecurity issues
- Field trip for identification of invasive alien species.
- Develop database for non-compliances, inspection reports etc e-certification (successes and challenges), pest information management systems (PIMs).
- Demonstration on detection of GMOs, group discussions on risk assessment.
- Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) website. http://www.cbd.int/convention/articles.shtml?a=cbd-00
- The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety. http://bch.cbd.int/protocol/
- The WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) website http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/sps_e/spsagr_e.htm
- ISPM 11: 2004 Pest risk analysis for quarantine pests, including analysis of environmental risks and living modified organisms
- Organization for the prohibition of chemical weapons. 1972. Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction (1972). http://www.opcw.org/chemical-weapons-convention/related-international-agreements/chemical-warfare-and-chemical-weapons/the-biological-and-toxin-weapons-convention/
- Tasmanian Biosecurity Policy. http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/internnsf/WebPages/MCAS-7FN86J?open
- Invasive species compendium (ISC): https://www.cabi.org/ISC
- Queensland biosecurity measures