- To create awareness on the importance of pest risk analysis in Phytosanitary systems.
- To sensitize participants on the sources of PRA information.
- To understand the various steps in PRA process.
- To enhance skills in the use of PRA tools.
- Principles of PRA
- Sources of PRA information
- Stages of pest risk analysis
- Tools for PRA
1.1.1 Principles of PRA (5 Hours)
- Introduction: definition of terms, why conduct PRA, scope (import, market access, policy change, interception), forms and types of PRA (quarantine and non-quarantine pests, commodity PRA, qualitative and quantitative PRA), importance of PRA, ISPMs related to PRA, reference to SPS agreement (Article 5) and post-harvest information.
- PRA process: stages in PRA (initiation process, pest risk assessment: categorization, assessment of the probability of Introduction, entry, establishment, spread, impacts, overall assessment of risk, uncertainty, risk management, references and communication.
- Information required for PRA:information of the pest (life cycle, dissemination potential, survival, and adaptability), geographical distribution, pest management, host range, economic importance, production areas, pathways of introduction and interception records.
- PRA information required by the importing/destination country: name of the commodity, varieties grown, where grown, agronomic practices, pests and diseases associated with the import, control measures including post-harvest treatment options of imports, post-harvest handling; mitigation measures.
1.1.2 Sources of PRA information (5 Hours)
- Information from previous PRAs
- Information from similar studies - published information, official files and reports, books, Journals, environmental impact assessment reports, internet sources.
- Pest and commodity databases for example, Crop Protection Compendium (CPC), Invasive Species Compendium (ISC), European Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) databases, climate databases, Agricola databases, libraries.
- Pest outbreak and pest alert reports
- Interception databases
- Crop production data, for example, National statistics, FAO crop statistics, post-harvest information, agricultural trade data
- Internet sources and any other relevant information
1.1.3 Stages in Pest Risk Analysis (8 Hours)
- Identify the trigger for PRA: request for permission to import or export, justify occurrence of a pest, revision of Phytosanitary policy, update of pest list.
- Steps in initiation stage: determine whether an organism is a pest, define the PRA area, evaluate any previous PRA and conclusion.
Pest risk assessment
- Pest categorization: pest identification, develop a pest list, distribution, plant parts affected, introduction pathway, quarantine and non-quarantine pests.
- Probability of introduction and spread: likelihood of entry: identification of pathways and origin, survival [transport, storage, pest management], dispersal mechanisms); probability of establishment and spread (suitable host, suitable environment, reproduction, pest survival, control measures).
- Assessment of potential economic, environmental and socio-economic impact Decision making from the overall pest risk assessment.
Pest risk management
- Identification and selection of appropriate risk management options:consignments, preventing or reducing infestation of the crop, pest free areas, post-harvest treatments other types of pathways,
- options within the importing country, prohibition of commodities; cost benefit analysis in option selection process (balance between protection and resources).
- Involvement of various stakeholders in the PRA process, for example, request for PRA information from exporting country NPPO
- PRA report: outline, purpose, source of information, categorized pest list, conclusion (probability and economic consequences), risk management options;.
- Dissemination of the PRA report: final report and retrieval mechanism, NPPO to NPPO, NPPO to stakeholders, publishing, alerts; continuous open communication (issues and negotiations in PRA).
1.1.4 Tools for PRA (5 Hours)
- Types of tools: Crop Protection Compendium (CPC), Invasive Species Compendium, EAPIC-PIMS, CABI PRA Tool, Plantwise Knowledge Bank, CAPRA, AGORA, PIOB or similar, relevant databases and other internet sources.
- Operation of PRA tools: CPC, CABI PRA Tool, CPC, ISC and internet sources.
- PRA Mapping software: CLIMEX, CABI Horizon Scanning Tool; Steps in operating the PRA software – description of special features, navigating through the software, installation.
1.2 Exercises on PRA (12 hours)
- Group PRA on a specific crop for example maize, beans, rice, passion fruit or any other crop of importance in participants’ country of origin.
- Hands on practical activities: participating member countries need to come with pest list information.
- Hands on practical activities - practical application of CABI PRA Tool software
- Exercises on the use of internet as a source of PRA information – search for specific pests from websites
- Searching for specific pests and related information, biology, host range, symptoms, control.Create a pest list for a certain tradable commodity and develop a simple database.Quick PRA using the CPC database.
1.3 Case studies (5 Hours)
Case study 1: Import control PRA for different crops
Case study 2: Market access PRA for different crops
Case study 3: Regional PRA for different crops e.g. rice and beans
- East African Phytosanitary Information Committee - Pest Information Management System (EAPIC-PIMS). http://www.eapic.org/
- Creative Research Systems. CLIMEX - Software to predict the effects of climate on species. http://www.climatemodel.com/climex.htm
- European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Pest Risk Analysis. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOStandards/pra.htm
- ISPM No. 2 (2007): Framework for pest risk analysis
- ISPM No. 11 (2004): Pest risk analysis for quarantine pests including analysis of environmental risks and living modified organisms
- ISPM No. 21 (2004): Pest risk analysis for regulated non-quarantine pests.
- United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). www.aphis.usda.gov/
- FAO. 2007. Pest risk analysis (PRA) training: Participant manual. http://www.standardsfacility.org/files/Project_documents/Project_Grants/STDF_120_PRA_training_manual.pdf
- European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Computer Assisted Pest Risk Analysis (CAPRA): User’s manual, version 4.2. http://capra.eppo.org/files/guideline_capra.pdf
- FAO. 2007. Pest risk analysis (PRA) training: Group Exercises Manual. https://www.ippc.int/file_uploaded/1229703354266_PRA_training_course_Group_exercises_manual.pdf
- FAO. 2007. Pest risk analysis (PRA) training: Instructor Manual. https://www.ippc.int/file_uploaded/1229703510280_PRA_training_course_Instructor_manual.pdf
- Fungal Databases. Systematic Botany & Mycology Laboratory, ARS, USDA http://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/
- World Biodiversity Database http://ip30.eti.uva.nl/bis/projects.php
- Morton, J. F. 1987. Fruits of Warm Climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/index.html
- HOSTS - a database of the host plants of the world's Lepidoptera. Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, London, UK. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/projects/hostplants/
- ScaleNet: A Database of Scale Insects of the World. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/scalenet/scalenet.htm
- NEMAPLEX. University of California at Davis, Davis, California. http://plpnemweb.ucdavis.edu/nemaplex/Uppermnus/topmnu.htm
- USDA Nematode Collection Search. http://www.nem.barc.usda.gov/DataBase/Search.CFM
- Plantwise Knowledge Bank: https://www.plantwise.org/KnowledgeBank/home.aspx
- Computer Assisted Pest Risk Analysis (CAPRA): http://capra.eppo.org/
- AGORA: http://www.fao.org/agora/en/
- CABI PRA Tool: https://www.cabi.org/PRA-Tool/login
- Invasive Species Compendium: https://www.cabi.org/isc
- Horizon Scanning Tool: https://www.cabi.org/