COPE Course Unit

4.1 Course Objectives


  1. To create awareness on the importance of pest risk analysis in Phytosanitary systems.
  2. To sensitize participants on the sources of PRA information.
  3. To understand the various steps in PRA process.
  4. To enhance skills in the use of PRA tools.

4.2 Course Outline


  1. Principles of PRA
  2. Sources of PRA information
  3. Stages of pest risk analysis
  4. Tools for PRA

4.3 Course Content


1.1.1 Principles of PRA (5 Hours)
  1. Introduction: definition of terms, why conduct PRA, scope (import, market access, policy change, interception), forms and types of PRA (quarantine and non-quarantine pests, commodity PRA, qualitative and quantitative PRA), importance of PRA, ISPMs related to PRA, reference to SPS agreement (Article 5) and post-harvest information.
  2. PRA process: stages in PRA (initiation process, pest risk assessment: categorization, assessment of the probability of Introduction, entry, establishment, spread, impacts, overall assessment of risk, uncertainty, risk management, references and communication.
  3. Information required for PRA:information of the pest (life cycle, dissemination potential, survival, and adaptability), geographical distribution, pest management, host range, economic importance, production areas, pathways of introduction and interception records.
  4. PRA information required by the importing/destination country: name of the commodity, varieties grown, where grown, agronomic practices, pests and diseases associated with the import, control measures including post-harvest treatment options of imports, post-harvest handling; mitigation measures.
1.1.2 Sources of PRA information (5 Hours)
  1. Information from previous PRAs
  2. Information from similar studies - published information, official files and reports, books, Journals, environmental impact assessment reports, internet sources.
  3. Pest and commodity databases for example, Crop Protection Compendium (CPC), Invasive Species Compendium (ISC), European Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) databases, climate databases, Agricola databases, libraries.
  4. Pest outbreak and pest alert reports
  5. Interception databases
  6. Crop production data, for example, National statistics, FAO crop statistics, post-harvest information, agricultural trade data
  7. Internet sources and any other relevant information
1.1.3 Stages in Pest Risk Analysis (8 Hours)
PRA Initiation
  1. Identify the trigger for PRA: request for permission to import or export, justify occurrence of a pest, revision of Phytosanitary policy, update of pest list.
  2. Steps in initiation stage: determine whether an organism is a pest, define the PRA area, evaluate any previous PRA and conclusion.
Pest risk assessment
  1. Pest categorization: pest identification, develop a pest list, distribution, plant parts affected, introduction pathway, quarantine and non-quarantine pests.
  2. Probability of introduction and spread: likelihood of entry: identification of pathways and origin, survival [transport, storage, pest management], dispersal mechanisms); probability of establishment and spread (suitable host, suitable environment, reproduction, pest survival, control measures).
  3. Assessment of potential economic, environmental and socio-economic impact Decision making from the overall pest risk assessment.
Pest risk management
  1. Identification and selection of appropriate risk management options:consignments, preventing or reducing infestation of the crop, pest free areas, post-harvest treatments other types of pathways,
  2. options within the importing country, prohibition of commodities; cost benefit analysis in option selection process (balance between protection and resources).
Risk Communication
  1. Involvement of various stakeholders in the PRA process, for example, request for PRA information from exporting country NPPO
  2. PRA report: outline, purpose, source of information, categorized pest list, conclusion (probability and economic consequences), risk management options;.
  3. Dissemination of the PRA report: final report and retrieval mechanism, NPPO to NPPO, NPPO to stakeholders, publishing, alerts; continuous open communication (issues and negotiations in PRA).
1.1.4 Tools for PRA (5 Hours)
  1. Types of tools: Crop Protection Compendium (CPC), Invasive Species Compendium, EAPIC-PIMS, CABI PRA Tool, Plantwise Knowledge Bank, CAPRA, AGORA, PIOB or similar, relevant databases and other internet sources.
  2. Operation of PRA tools: CPC, CABI PRA Tool, CPC, ISC and internet sources.
  3. PRA Mapping software: CLIMEX, CABI Horizon Scanning Tool; Steps in operating the PRA software – description of special features, navigating through the software, installation.
1.2 Exercises on PRA (12 hours)
  1. Group PRA on a specific crop for example maize, beans, rice, passion fruit or any other crop of importance in participants’ country of origin.
  2. Hands on practical activities: participating member countries need to come with pest list information.
  3. Hands on practical activities - practical application of CABI PRA Tool software
  4. Exercises on the use of internet as a source of PRA information – search for specific pests from websites
  5. Searching for specific pests and related information, biology, host range, symptoms, control.Create a pest list for a certain tradable commodity and develop a simple database.Quick PRA using the CPC database.
1.3 Case studies (5 Hours)

Case study 1: Import control PRA for different crops

Case study 2: Market access PRA for different crops

Case study 3: Regional PRA for different crops e.g. rice and beans



  1. East African Phytosanitary Information Committee - Pest Information Management System (EAPIC-PIMS).
  2. Creative Research Systems. CLIMEX - Software to predict the effects of climate on species.
  3. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Pest Risk Analysis.
  4. ISPM No. 2 (2007): Framework for pest risk analysis
  5. ISPM No. 11 (2004): Pest risk analysis for quarantine pests including analysis of environmental risks and living modified organisms
  6. ISPM No. 21 (2004): Pest risk analysis for regulated non-quarantine pests.
  7. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS).
  8. FAO. 2007. Pest risk analysis (PRA) training: Participant manual.
  9. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Computer Assisted Pest Risk Analysis (CAPRA): User’s manual, version 4.2.
  10. FAO. 2007. Pest risk analysis (PRA) training: Group Exercises Manual.
  11. FAO. 2007. Pest risk analysis (PRA) training: Instructor Manual.
  12. Fungal Databases. Systematic Botany & Mycology Laboratory, ARS, USDA
  13. World Biodiversity Database
  14. Morton, J. F. 1987. Fruits of Warm Climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL.
  15. HOSTS - a database of the host plants of the world's Lepidoptera. Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, London, UK.
  16. ScaleNet: A Database of Scale Insects of the World.
  17. NEMAPLEX. University of California at Davis, Davis, California.
  18. USDA Nematode Collection Search.
  19. Plantwise Knowledge Bank:
  20. Computer Assisted Pest Risk Analysis (CAPRA):
  21. AGORA:
  22. CABI PRA Tool:
  23. Invasive Species Compendium:
  24. Horizon Scanning Tool: