COPE Course Unit

5.1 Course Objectives


  1. To create awareness on pest surveillance and its implications on Agricultural production and trade.
  2. To enhance participants’ knowledge on types of pest surveillance and surveillance methodology: To enhance knowledge and skills in surveillance data collection, analysis, pest reporting and communication.
  3. To enhance knowledge on the use of surveillance information to establish pest free areas, areas of low pest prevalence and pest free places of production.

5.2 Course Outline


  1. Types of pest surveillance
  2. Surveillance methodology
  3. Analysis of surveillance data
  4. Pest reporting and pest listing
  5. Establishment of pest free areas, areas of low pest prevalence and pest free places of production
  6. Tools in pest surveillance

5.3 Course Content


1.1.1 Types of pest surveillance (3 Hours)
  1. Introduction: definitions, importance of pest surveillance, implications on Agricultural production and trade, legal framework: existing mechanisms for conducting surveillance. Refer to ISPM 4, 5, 6, 8, 16,17, 19,22, 26, 27, 29 and 30
  2. Distinction between survey and surveillance, general surveillance, specific surveillance (detection, delimiting or monitoring surveillance), pest surveillance, commodity/host surveillance, border (entry/exit points) surveillance, community surveillance.
1.1.2 Surveillance methodology (3 Hours)
  1. Rationale for surveillance, determination of type of surveillance,
  2. Surveillance plan: surveillance team, infrastructure, scope, history, surveillance design, sample size, site selection, timing.
  3. Sampling procedures and tools for example, Mapping (ArcGIS, Diva-GIS, QGIS),
  4. Pest identification/diagnostics: confirmation of pest, sources of information (pest surveillance data bases and others, procedures for reporting.
1.1.3 Analysis of surveillance data (3 Hours)
  1. Data processing :statistical analysis and interpretation
  2. surveillance report development: elements of the report, literature, detection analysis report, statistical conclusions and recommendations
  3. Record keeping and transparency: documentation and communication of surveillance report.
1.1.4 Pest reporting and pest listing (3 Hours)
  1. Purpose of pest reporting and listing
  2. Other sources of information, verification of information
  3. Content of report: outline, identity of the pest, host(s) or articles concerned, status of the pest (for example, regulated or non-regulated quarantine), geographical distribution of the pest [including a map, if appropriate], nature of the immediate or potential danger, or other reason for reporting),
  4. Specific proposals to address new pests.
1.1.5 Establishment of pest free areas, pest free places of production and areas of low pest prevalence (3 Hours)
  1. Definitions: pest free areas, pest free places of production, areas of low pest prevalence)
  2. Determination of a PFA, establishment and maintenance of a PFA,
  3. Systems to establish freedom, Phytosanitary measures to maintain freedom, checks to verify freedom has been maintained, documentation and review.
1.1.6 Tools in pest surveillance (5 hours)
  1. Geographical Information System (GIS): Introduction to GIS, Importance of GIS, data collection using GPS, map development using GIS applications, modelling, examples of GIS software: ArcGIS, QGIS, open software, Diva-GIS
  2. Data collection kits (Open Data Kit-ODK, KoboCollect and other data collection kits), Principles and use of ODK in data collection, development of questionnaires using KoboToolbox, collection of data using ODK, downloading and editing data,
1.2 Case studies (5 Hours)
  1. Surveillance on Bemisia tabaci, by National Museums of Kenya (NMK), KEPHIS, and Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO).
  2. Regional Surveillance: Maize Lethal Necrotic Disease and Fall Armyowrm
  3. Surveillance on cassava brown streak virus or tomato spotted wilt virus.
  4. Surveillance on Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) by International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), NARO-Kawanda, Bioversity International, KEPHIS.
  5. Community surveillance: African Armyworm, Fall Armyworm
  6. Other case studies from participating countries

Additional data for above case studies may include maps, pictures and other relevant information

1.3 Exercises and practicals (8 Hours)
  1. Practical – Setting up various traps for specific pests example: Tuta absoluta, false codling moth, Ceratitis capitata, Asian citrus psyllids, sticky traps, undertake identification and generate a field report.
  2. Insect pest specimen preservation and insect box collection
  3. Group Exercise - generate maps using Arc GIS; country experiences on port of entry surveillance system, existence of early warning surveillance system.
  4. Data collection kits - exercise on the use of ODK
  5. Development of a surveillance report using hypothetical pest.



  1. Crop Protection Compendium.
  2. ISPM 04: 1995 Requirements for the establishment of pest free areas
  3. ISPM 06: 1997 Guidelines for surveillance
  4. ISPM 08: 2017 Determination of pest status in an area
  5. ISPM 16: 2017 Regulated non-quarantine pests: Concept and application
  6. ISPM 17: 2017 Pest reporting
  7. ISPM 19: 2016 Guidelines on lists of regulated pests
  8. ISPM 26: 2015 Establishment of pest free areas for fruit flies (Tephritidae)
  9. ISPM 27: 2016 Diagnostic protocols for regulated pests
  10. ISPM 22: 2016 Requirements for the establishment of areas of low pest prevalence
  11. ISPM 29: 2017 Recognition of pest free areas and areas of low pest prevalence
  12. ISPM 30: 2017 Establishment of areas of low pest prevalence for fruit flies (Tephritidae)
  13. ArcGIS information software, version 10:
  14. Open data kit (ODK):
  15. Quantum GIS (QGIS):
  16. Trapping guidelines for areawide fruitfly programmes: by International Atomic Energy Agency of UN: